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# List Monad

As we already mentioned in the Applicatives section, the underlying effect of the

`List`

type is support for *non-deterministic*computations.`Maybe`

computations can return either `Nothing`

or a `Just`

value, while `List`

computations can return zero, one or multiple values based on their length. Let's see how this is defined in the `Monad`

instance of `List`

:instance Monad [] where

-- return :: a -> [a]

return x = [x]

-- (>>=) :: [a] -> (a -> [b]) -> [b]

m >>= f = [y | x <- m, y <- f x]

The bind operator in this case is defined using list comprehension.

**Can you define it using the functions**`map`

and `concat`

?The

`return`

method simply takes a value `x`

and puts it into a `List`

structure `[x]`

. The `(>>=)`

method for lists extracts all the values `x`

from the list `m`

and applies the function `f`

to each of them, combining all the results in one final list. As with the `Maybe`

monad, the bind operator, allows us to chain operations together with lists as well. With lists, these chaining operations will combine all output possibilities in a single result list.Let's take a look at a simple example of chaining list operations together. Imagine we want to model mitosis, a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. First, we create a function

`mitosis`

that simply splits a cell in two:mitosis :: String -> [String] -- we will represent cells with simple strings

mitosis = replicate 2

ghci> ["Cell"] >>= mitosis

["Cell", "Cell"]

With the monadic instance of lists, we have a simple way of chaining multiple operations on lists. We can chain the result of multiple cell replications starting with one cell into one final list:

ghci> ["Cell"] >>= mitosis >>= mitosis >>= mitosis

["Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell"]

In this case, the

`mitosis`

function is applied to each element of the list, providing a resulting list to be passed to the subsequent functions.threeGens :: String -> [String]

threeGens gen0 = do

gen1 <- mitosis gen0

gen2 <- mitosis gen1

gen3 <- mitosis gen2

return gen3

ghci> threeGens "Cell"

["Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell", "Cell"]

Last modified 1yr ago